School districts are independent units of government, responsible for planning the education facilities within their district. Because of their governance structure, it can be difficult to plan for and site schools in coordination with local comprehensive plans. In Washington State, school districts are poised to grow. The 2012 McCleary decision requires the state to “fully fund” education and limit class sizes at lower grade levels. With an improved economy and population growth, local school districts are already planning for many new schools, and additional classrooms at existing schools. This has caused siting challenges in about 25 of the 250 school districts statewide.
2017 Amendments to the Growth Management Act Address School Siting
In 2017, the Growth Management Act was amended specifically to address school siting issues, authorizing counties, in certain circumstances, to extend public facilities and utilities to schools located outside urban growth areas.
Commerce has developed guidance, The Siting of School Facilities and the Growth Management Act, for local governments on the new law.
The GMA requires counties and cities to:
Plan for sufficient capacity of land suitable for development, including public facilities. Schools that serve urban populations and that require urban services should be located inside UGAs. RCW 36.70A.020 GMA Goals and RCW 36.70A.070 The Land Use Element.
Work together to prepare a prioritized list of lands necessary for identified public uses – including schools. RCW 36.70A.150.
Consider schools and school grounds when new subdivisions are reviewed. RCW 58.17.110 Subdivisions.
If impact fees are to be collected, the capital facilities plan should address schools. RCW 82.02.050.
Countywide planning policies also provide more guidance for where schools may be located
School districts, public agencies and private entities should work together to develop joint inter-agency agreements to provide facilities that not only meet the demands of the education for our youth, but also provide for public recreation opportunities that reduce the unnecessary duplication of facilities within Skagit County. Skagit County 9.11:
Certain public capital facilities such as schools and libraries that generate substantial travel demand should be located first in Designated Centers or, if not feasible to do so, along or near major transportation corridors and public transportation routes. Kitsap CF 3 (b):
MPP-PS-21: Site schools, institutions, and other community facilities that primarily serve urban populations within the urban growth area in locations where they will promote the local desired growth plans. Vision 2040: Multi-County Policies required for King, Snohomish, Pierce, and Kitsap counties.
Prioritize the location of (school) facilities in urban areas with consideration to existing facilities in rural areas. Pierce County: Ed 5-3: . . .
Studies addressing the challenges of school siting
Growth Management Hearings Board guidance related to siting schools
The county has an obligation to work with school districts in the siting of schools. It also has an obligation to facilitate the siting of schools within urban areas while discouraging them outside of urban growth areas (UGAs). Hensley VI, 03-3-009c, FDO, at 22
School or church properties that are adjacent may be drawn into the UGA. Pilchuck VI, 06-3-0015c, FDO at 53
Any actual UGA extensions for churches and schools shall be limited and rare, for the following reasons:”
1) RCW 36.70A.150 requires cities and counties to identify land for public purposes, specifically schools.
2) School impact fees require coordination between school districts and jurisdictions so school needs should be known.
3) Accommodating school needs within existing UGAs should be a priority. CTED, 03-3-0017, FDO, at 28-29.
Schools are authorized in rural areas. Vashon Maury CPSGMHB 95-3-0008, FDO
Governor’s Smart Communities Awards Program
GMA Laws and Rules
GMA Periodic Update
Growth Management Grants
Growth Management Topics
Guidebooks and Resources
Defense Community Compatibility
Regional Planners’ Forums
Short Course on Local Planning
Submitting Materials to the State for Review